Post-Mining Multi-Hazard Assessment for Sustainable Development

Al Heib, M.M.; Franck, C.; Djizanne, H.; Degas, M. Post-Mining Multi-Hazard Assessment for Sustainable Development. Sustainability 2023, 15, 8139. https://

Abstract: Today, most mines (coal, iron, and others) in Europe are already closed due to economic, environmental, and societal issues. Therefore, post-mining risk assessment and management remain crucial for mining authorities, policymakers, and planners. In the post-mining period, several hazards are likely to affect the surface areas in the closed mining sites. The impact of closed mines can lead to potentially damaging changes in surface and/or underground water flow, as well as the development of surface instabilities that can affect people or infrastructure, sometimes dangerously. The assessment of the different hazards must consider the interaction between the mining hazards and other risks (natural and technological). Thus, land use planning, particularly the rehabilitation of former mining sites, requires better tools to apprehend the multiplicity of hazards and their constraints. The paper presents a methodology considering the interactions between hazards around closed mines. After recalling the advantages of this multi-hazard analysis, the work consisted of, almost exhaustively, describing the three prominent families of hazards: mining, natural, and technological. Then, the possible interactions between hazards were described according to their nature (trigger or aggravating), their category (technical or regulatory), and their typology (dependent or independent). Finally, an attempt was proposed to evaluate the type and intensity of interactions between hazards. The multi-hazard assessment methodology was applied to a coal mine and showed the complexity and the utility of such a risk assessment analysis to improve risk management in closed mines


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